The riddle of paradeigma


Natalia V. Zaitseva


The article continues the study of paradeigma (parallel reasoning, reasoning based on an example). Paradeigma was considered in detail by Aristotle in Prior Analytics, and in a rhetorical manner – in "Rhetoric" as being one of the two modes of argument. In previous papers, the emphasis was made on cognitive-epistemological interpretation of corresponding cognitive procedure. This paper zeros on the logical characteristics of paradeigma. The first section contains the analysis of the relevant fragments of the Aristotle's text and brief summary of the cognitive-phenomenological interpretation of paradeigma. The aim of the next section was to identify the logical form of reasoning based on an example. It is shown to be non-reducible to other types of plausible (non-deductive) reasoning, such as inductive generalization, analogy and abduction. On this basis, a reasonable assumption is made that pradaeigma is a special independent kind of plausible reasoning. In the final part of the article, the place of the paradeigma and the underlying cognitive procedure in the logical and philosophical views of Aristotle is considered. Special attention is paid to the corresponding cognitive procedure of the first principle grasping, as described by Aristotle in the Posterior Analytics.




Philosophy and Logic


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